Information on the measles, mumps and rubella vaccines
Every day, we in the paediatric outpatient clinic receive questions from concerned relatives about the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Measles, mumps and rubella are viral diseases of children and adolescents, but they can also affect unprotected adults.
The triple combination vaccination against measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) is included in the free vaccination programme. It is a live vaccination. Two MMR vaccinations are recommended from the completed 9th month of life (absolutely before entry into community facilities).
- In case of first vaccination in the 1st year of life (from the completed 9th month of life), the 2nd vaccination should be administered after three months.
- In case of first vaccination after the 1st year of life, the 2nd vaccination is given as early as possible, with a minimum interval of four weeks.
- Missing MMR vaccinations can and should be made up at any age.
Definition of an MMR infection
Measles and mumps are contagious viral diseases for humans. They are widespread worldwide. Both infectious diseases can cause severe complications and secondary diseases in children, adolescents and adults. Rubella is an infectious disease that often runs without symptoms. However, a rubella infection during pregnancy can cause severe damage to the unborn child. The triple combination vaccination measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) protects against these infectious diseases. Infants and adults are at particular risk of a severe course of the disease. The measles viruses are transmitted by droplet infection or by direct contact with infectious nasal/throat secretions. The incubation period is on average eight to ten days. Mumps is an infectious viral disease caused by the mumps virus.
Symptoms MMR infection
Complications of measles infection are:
- Otitis media
- Pneumonia (measles pneumonia)
- Seizures and inflammation of the brain (encephalitis)
These can also be fatal. In addition, measles causes an increased risk of dying from other infectious diseases for several years due to weakening of the immune system.
Complications of mumps that increase with age:
- Neurological disorders such as paralysis, dizziness, speech disorders and personality changes, headaches, wandering pain in different parts of the body. Symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, such as nausea or vomiting.
- Meningitis (inflammation of the brain)
- Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis)
- Inflammation of the nerves in the ear area which can later lead to deafness (acoustic neuroma).
- Testicular inflammation Infertility (infertility)
- Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
Complications of viral infection with rubella:
- Characteristic small-spotted redness exanthema
- Swelling of the lymph nodes (especially in the neck)
- Joint complaints
- Increased risk of malformations of the embryo and premature births